Water storage tanks are typically used to maintain water service pressure, emergency storage supply and pressure during power outages, and to provide equalization volume to meet peak demands, such as fire flows and times of day when water use is high. Consistent flow rates are often desired for wells, water treatment plants, and pump stations. Instead of ramping treatment and pumping rates to meet instantaneous real-time demands, equalization storage volume enables consistent operations by filling and draining equalization storage volume to make up the difference. When choosing a new water storage tank for your community or industry, there are a few factors to consider.
Many water utilities have traditionally kept storage tanks full or nearly full in order to be better prepared for peak water use periods and emergencies such as fires. As a result, many storage facilities have greater capacity than is required for non-emergency use. Furthermore, some storage facilities, particularly older ones, have an overflow elevation that is lower than the pressure of the water system. A valve prevents water from entering the tank, and pumps are required to transport water from the tank to the distribution system. When water is stagnant in a tank, it can stay there for a very long time. Long residence times can cause water quality issues such as residual loss, thermal stratification in the summer, and ice formation in the winter.
Regardless of the type of tank facility, the overflow elevation must be properly matched to the system pressure, as this allows the water surface within the tank to “float” on the system. In other words, the pressure in the distribution system is created by the water elevation in the tank. When tanks are filled via pump stations, the system’s pressure rises and water flows into tank facilities. The water level in a storage tank typically fluctuates on a daily basis due to a fill-and-draw cycle. The fluctuation will differ depending on the size (diameter and height) of the storage facility, real-time system demand, and distribution system location.
To ensure proper tank turnover and mixing, the water in the tank should fluctuate several feet prior to the start of the pump station or the addition of additional pumps.
Corrosion is one of the most expensive issues that industrial facilities face across the country. Corrosion-related costs are a major issue, costing hundreds of billions of dollars each year. The good news is that corrosion can be avoided by using tried-and-true maintenance techniques such as the application of protective coatings.
Corrosion protection for storage tanks prevents leaks as well as environmental disasters, fires, explosions, workplace injuries, unexpected downtime, and costly repairs. One method of providing protection is to select the coatings and application techniques that are most effective for your storage tank.
Advantages of Tank Lining
Identifying the solution to any problem necessitates a thorough understanding of the problem and its genesis. Corrosion, in its broadest sense, refers to the deterioration of metals as a result of their reaction to the environment. When corrosion takes hold of a storage tank, its contents – such as produce, potable water, chemicals, crude oil, clean petroleum products, and other substances – tend to undergo a chemical reaction when they come into contact with the tank’s surface, causing it to corrode and rust from the inside out.
Tank lining can be used to not only address existing corrosion but also to prevent it from occurring in the first place. It refers to the process of applying coating products to the interior of storage tanks, which is commonly used to protect tanks from corrosion-related damage and deterioration of structural integrity.
Protective linings not only keep your storage tanks operational, but they can also significantly reduce general maintenance costs and extend the life of your storage tanks and other storage solutions, such as silos, bins, and containers. Furthermore, the majority of tank linings have antifungal and antibacterial properties. As a result, they can inhibit microorganism growth and proliferation, preventing premature spoilage and the associated health and safety risks.
Types of Linings for Storage Tanks
There are a number of available tank liners in the market. Here’s a breakdown of the common types and their strengths:
Epoxy tank coatings are made of epoxy material, which can be chemically resistant. They are strong, aggressive linings that can work in high-temperature environments. Because epoxy is moisture-resistant and solvent-free, it is an obvious choice for water tanks.
Epoxy linings are available in three basic formulations: Epoxy Novolac, Bisphenol A, and Bisphenol F, each with unique benefits. Epoxy Novolac has excellent chemical resistance, whereas Bisphenol F has more versatile functionality and Bisphenol A has higher viscosity and resistance to high temperatures. Epoxy Novolac is also solvent-free, making it an excellent choice for eco-friendly projects.
Polyurethanes have been designed to withstand a wide range of chemical and mechanical stresses, including abrasion, puncture, and corrosion. They are excellent at protecting against various elements because they are extremely durable even in the most extreme environments. They are ideal for concrete-made structures and are flexible in the middle, though they are certainly more flexible than other options.
Fluoropolymers have a low friction coefficient, high impact tolerance, good tensile strength, and excellent corrosion, permeation, abrasion, and high-temperature resistance. They work well for lining storage tanks as well as other elements like transport vessels and pipes.
Vinyl ester liners are made of vinyl and have some of the highest chemical infiltration and contamination resistance. Because of its high resistance to temperature and chemical damage, this material is widely used in most chemical industries.
Cementitious linings are classified into two types: epoxy and polymer-modified cementitious linings. These materials are commonly used in the lining of concrete tanks used in water treatment and chemical storage. These linings are ideal for waterproofing retaining or collection structures underwater.
Zinc Tank Liners
A zinc tank liner is made of zinc silicate and is anti-corrosive. Its additives and binders have the potential to act as an effective waterproofing material. This material contains a high percentage of zinc dust. These liners provide zinc-to-zinc contact with cathode-like protective layers similar to those found in galvanizing. Because these linings are non-porous, cleaning them can be difficult. They can, however, still safely contain chemicals.
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